100 years have passed since the Soviet invasion and Collapse of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR), APA reports.
On April 27, 1920, the head of Soviet Russia Vladimir Ilyich Lenin established the Provisional Military-Revolutionary Committee of Azerbaijan in Moscow under the chairmanship of Nariman Narimanov. Narimanov was in Moscow, some members of the committee in Baku, and some on the northern border of Azerbaijan – in an armored train of the Russian army – waiting for the order. On the same day, the 11th Red Army led by Lewandowski in Dagestan was ordered to attack Azerbaijan. The Bolsheviks also used a trick in this matter – it was stated that the Red Army was going through Azerbaijan to help the soldiers of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who was fighting a life-and-death war in Anatolia.
On April 27, the Azerbaijani Bolsheviks delivered to the Republican government an ultimatum to hand over the power. The ultimatum was signed by Chingiz Ildırım who presented himself as “commander of Red Navy of Soviet Azerbaijan, engineer”: “We demand from you to immediately hand over the power to the Soviet Workers’-and-Peasants’ Government led by comrade Narimanov. In which case, the Red Navy will give a guarantee of peace and tranquility for the whole population of Baku City irrespective of their ethnicity. The response must be sent within two hours. Otherwise, the fire will be opened”.
The meeting of the Republican Parliament which started at 20:45 on the same day lasted for 3 hours. Although Mahammad Amin Rasulzade speaking at the meeting said XI Red Army didn’t go to Anadolu for assistance and came to occupy Azerbaijan, after the discussions, a decision was adopted to hand over the power to the Azerbaijani Bolsheviks.
Although the guarantee of security of members of the national government was given in both the ultimatum and other negotiations, these promises were not kept, the reprisals, the “red terror” were launched against members of the government of the Azerbaijan People’s Republic. And part of members of the national government including M. A. Rasulzade was forced to emigrate.
It is interesting that during the times of the USSR, not the day of April 27, but the day of April 28 was celebrated as the date of establishment of Soviet power in Azerbaijan.
The Soviet power in Azerbaijan lasted for 71 years. On August 30, 1991, at the special meeting of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan Republic, the Declaration “About restoration of state independence of the Azerbaijan Republic” was adopted.
And on October 18, 1991, the Azerbaijani Parliament adopted the Constitutional Act About State Independence of the Azerbaijan Republic and that Act was approved by the national referendum on December 29, 1991.
Based on both documents, the Republic of Azerbaijan has announced the political and legal heir of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. The anthem, emblem, and flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic were also adopted as they are